TM 55-607/NAVSEA OP 3221 Rev 2
b. The block-stow and sweatboard-to-sweatboard dunnaging techniques described in the following paragraphs
represent the best current loading procedures as practical at DOD outloading ports. Both techniques are practiced to
varying degrees at all outloading ports, based on cargo configuration, type of ship, and local preference. With respect to
the above dunnaging techniques, two distinct methods of attaching shoring structures to the ship's hull have evolved: (1)
the attachment of kickers to the ship's sweatboards and sheathing, which has been historically part of the sweatboard-to-
sweatboard technique and is illustrated as such in this manual, and (2) the attachment of kickers directly against the
ship's hull plating, which also has been traditionally a feature of the blockstowage technique. This relationship will also
be illustrated in this manual. Although both hull attachment techniques are considered equally acceptable, the selection
of a method should be made in accordance with local outloading port policy. Strict adherence to a specific local policy
will avoid any confusion that could result from indiscriminately mixing the two procedures. For guidance, mixing of these
hull attachment techniques within adjacent areas of the same ship is not recommended.
8-2. Block-Stow Technique
Of primary importance in the securing of military explosives is the maintenance of a tight, unitized stow with minimum
void space. Ideally, block stowage eliminates voids within the stow and requires only the construction of a simple
structure to confine cargo in the block form.
a. Block stowage may begin either in the center of the hold against the forward or aft bulkhead and worked toward
the hull, or at the hull and worked toward the center. In holds or compartments in which the sheet angle of the hull is
significant, stowage is begun in the center of the compartment and is worked outward toward the hull. Voids will
therefore be restricted to the wing areas only. In amidship holds or rectangular compartments in which hull contour is
insignificant, stowage may begin against the sweatboards or sides of the compartment and worked toward the center,
thereby restricting any voids to the center of the compartment.
b. The fundamental structure employed
in block-stow securing
in figure 8-4. Figure 8-5
illustrates use of the structure in the shoring of palletized ammunition in a typical number 1 hold. These structures are
designed to provide full support for the palletized unit loads and are constructed perpendicular to the deck and parallel to
the longitudinal center line of the ship. An upright should be provided at both ends of the outboard unit load in each row.
(Kickers provide lateral support for uprights and are bevel-cut to match the hull curvature.) Kickers are then wedgefitted
directly to the ribs or to the skin of the ship as close to the ribs as practical. Horizontal alignment of kickers should be
maintained to facilitate subsequent lacing. The use of sweatboards for direct support of kickers or other securing
structures is not necessary with the block-stow method. Kickers should bear against the uprights, directly behind the face
boarding, if required. Each kicker is secured to the upright with two 10d nails on three sides, as shown in figure 6-23.
Vertical spacing between kickers should not exceed 48 inches. To unitize the structure, 2 by 3-inch horizontal and
vertical lacers are installed. Precise locations of lacers need not be specified, but each kicker should be laced
horizontally and vertically to the adjacent kicker. Lacing must be extended to an overhead ship's structure to prevent
vertical movement of the dunnage structure. Lacing is not required at the uprights when face boarding is used; however,
in the absence of face boarding, lacing is installed as shown in figure 8-4. In holds or compartments in which hull contour
prevents proper alignment of unit loads, a partially preconstructed securing structure can be installed for more efficient
loading. This structure, as illustrated in figure 8-6, utilizes 2 by 6-inch face boards spaced to support the top and base of
each unitized load and provides a bearing surface for the stow parallel to the ship's center line. The face boards are
secured to the uprights as a unit on the deck, after which the entire structure is raised into position and braced to the hull
as usual. Uprights of 4 by 4-inch lumber are spaced at intervals not exceeding 36 inches or the length of the bearing
surface of the stow, whichever is less.