TM 55-607/NAVSEA OP 3221 Rev 2
Heel block-A block located at the foot of a boom and fastened to a mast or kingpost. One of the blocks
through which the main cargo falls is reeved.
Hold-A space allotted entirely to the carriage of cargo bounded by permanent steel bulkheads, decks, and
the shell of the ship. Deck openings are provided with a means of effectively closing the hold against the
weather, and for closing off each hold. The compartment above the deep tanks is termed the lower hold.
Jacks-Structures placed along the ship's bulkhead to support boarding in bulkhead construction.
Kickers-Primarily, relatively short lengths of lumber nailed in a horizontal position and spaced between
uprights, or uprights and permanent ship's structures, to add rigidity and strength to dunnage structures.
Lacers-Long lengths of narrow-width lumber laid across and nailed to a series of braces or kickers in a
symmetrical dunnage structure to maintain the position of the braces or kickers, and thus the integrity of
Lading-The load or cargo being shipped.
Layer-A course or stratum of the lading parallel to the deck of the vessel that is one container or unit load
Leader-Individual in authority over a single Civil Service gang.
Machinefloor-A full double-layer floor of 2-inch lumber installed over a tier or tiers of cargo on which MHE
or heavy equipment may be driven for stowage of cargo; see also "tier deck."
Overstow-Any individual item of cargo, or, in general, all items of cargo emplaced above the lower layer(s) of
stowage, in a particular compartment or stowage area. (Not to be confused with double handling in port
Pallet-A platform or skid on which lading is placed and secured that is used to facilitate handling of small
commodities by materials handling equipment.
Pendant-Short line or wire having an eye spliced in each end. Pendants are usually named according to use,
such as guy pendant.
Preventers (guys and stays)-Heavy wire ropes used to supplement the regular guys and stays as a safety
precaution when handling heavy cargo.
Reeve--To pass rope or wire rope around the sheaves of a block or the drum of a winch.
Rib-Any of the curved crosspieces extending from the keel to the top of the hull in a ship, thereby forming
Row-Unit loads usually extending athwartships one load in width.
Scantling-Softwood yard lumber graded as common dimension because of its size; that is, from 2 inches to
under 5 inches thick and less than 8 inches wide; also, a general term applied to the vertical uprights
(studs) of these lumber sizes that are used in dunnage structures such as magazines.
Schooner guy-Also called midship guy and span guy. The tackle that spans the ends of two booms.
by which military explosives are effectively blocked, braced, and tommed aboard
cargo vessels; also known as dunnaging.
Securing material-The lumber (blocks, braces, bulkheads, decks, encasements, frames, jacks, magazines,
sheathing, and stripping) and lashing gear used to secure cargo for the purpose of preventing damage
during transport; also referred to as dunnage.
Securing structure-General term for dunnaging structures not otherwise classified as bulkheads, maga-
zines, encasement, or decking.
Sheathing-1. The wood covering, solid or stripped lumber or plywood, placed over the studding in magazine
interiors. 2. The vertical risers nailed to the sweatboards for protection of the stow or to permit attachment
of the appropriate securing structure.
Sheer angle-As related to dunnaging practices, the angle produced at a given location by the upward curve
of a vessel's sides from keel to main deck. This is not to be confused with the technical definition: the angle
produced at a given location by the fore-and-aft curvature from bow to stern of a ship's deck, as viewed from
a side elevation.
Shoring-The securing of cargo so that it cannot move sideways or downward. Compare with "tomming."
Skin (of ship)-The plates of a ship; the side of the hull.
Sleeper-A plank of board nailed to decking and bearing against the base of a dunnage structure so that
movement of the structure toward the plank is blocked.
Spacers-Lengths of lumber secured between unit loads or containers to create sufficient space to prevent
their chafing together.
Spotting-The positioning of cargo at points along the berth adjacent to the ship's hatches to permit
handling by shipboard cranes.