TM 55-607/NAVSEA OP 3221 Rev 2
Bearer-Lumber laid on the deck, under the ends of vertical uprights (studs), to receive and distribute the
vertical load to the deck.
Blocking-The installation of solid pieces of wood, or blocks, to a deck, bulkhead, or overhead so that they
bear directly against cargo in such a manner that free movement of the cargo in a given direction is
Boarding-The cargo-bearing surface of bulkhead or securing structure.
Brace-A structural member used to transmit, divert, or resist weight or pressure.
Bracing-The installation of a wooden structure so that it extends from a deck, bulkhead, or overhead and
bears directly against the cargo to restrict the free movement of the cargo in a given direction.
Bulkhead-1. Permanent structural steel partitions separating compartments on a ship. 2. Wooden parti-
tions constructed athwartships to subdivide a compartment or to separate cargo from structural end
Bull chain-Chain used for securing topping lift tackle.
Bull wire-Wire rope used for operating topping lift tackle.
Camber-As related to securing practices, the hull curvature fore and aft as viewed from above; not to be
confused with the technical definition (that is, the convex curvature of a deck athwartship).
Cleat-A secondary member that is added to reinforce, hold in position, or provide additional support to
primary dunnage members. Used mostly with bracing and as horizontal members attached to strip
sheathing to support the ends of stripping laid over stowage.
Crew-A subdivision of a contract labor gang that performs a single function of the loading operation.
Decking-General term for dunnage laid over metal ship's decking to protect the cargo; also termed flooring.
Diagonal-Wood bracing placed at an angle.
Draft-Any load or combination of loads hoisted into or out of a vessel in a single lift.
Dunnage-The lumber (blocks, braces, bulkheads, decks, encasements, frames, jacks, magazines,
sheathing, and stripping) and lashing gear used to secure cargo for the purpose of preventing damage
during transport; also referred to as securing material.
by which military explosives are effectively blocked, braced, and tommed aboard
merchant-type vessels; also known as securing.
Face board-Boarding affixed to bulkheads, block-shoring structures, or other securing structures to
provide a bearing surface for the cargo.
Factory and shop lumber-One of the three main classes of softwood lumber, consisting of lumber intended
to be cut for use in further manufacture. It is graded on the basis of the percentage of the area that will
produce a limited number of cuttings of a specified or a given minimum size quality.
Falls-The part of tackle that is made up of wire cable.
Fillers-Small pieces of lumber used to fill small spaces throughout the load to obtain a tighter stow.
Flooring-Dunnage lumber laid over the ship's metal deck to protect the cargo; also termed decking.
Force-A group of personnel that is organized to perform a specific type of operation, usually including both
military personnel and gangs of contract laborers, as required.
Gang ((carpenter) blocking/bracing)-A group of from 6 to 20 contract laborers with a header, whose
primary function is to secure the cargo.
Gang (loading and stowing)-A group of about 16 to 20 contract laborers usually consisting of breakout
men, dock men, winchmen, and a hold man.
Gang (Civil Service)-A group of about 16 to 20 personnel usually consisting of ordnance men, blockers and
bracers, winchmen, riggers, and signalmen whose job is to load, stow, and dunnage the cargo.
Gantline-Light, general-purpose ropes, such as top-mast gantline, that is used to support a man in a bosun
chair, to send gear aloft, or for other such jobs.
Guy pendant-A pendant that connects the head of a boom with a guy tackle and serves to shorten the
length of the guy tackle.
Hatch--An opening in the weather deck and in all decks below in the same vertical plane through which
cargo is passed.
Header-1. Lumber placed between the tops of vertical uprights (studs) and the overhead. 2. Individual in
authority over a single contract labor gang.